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Salesforce interview questions for developers

100+ Salesforce interview questions for developers with answers in pdf download.
Salesforce interview questions for developers

Salesforce interview questions for developers

1. What is Salesforce?

This is one of the most basic salesforce interview questions, where the interviewer is simply checking if you can club your knowledge into a quick answer or not!

Here’s a short and straightforward answer to this salesforce interview question – Salesforce is the most effective Customer Relationship Management (CRM) product that is delivered to subscribers as a cost-effective software-as-a-service (SaaS).

2. What does Salesforce do?

Salesforce provides CRM software and cloud-based solutions that help enterprises to connect better with their customers. It supports businesses to manage their customer’s data and track their activities efficiently.

3. What are the features of Salesforce

Contact management

  • It provides easier contact management by giving access to critical data of the customers and interaction history.
  • It gives complete customer details including insights and engage-enhancement strategies. Social data of the customers can be used for a deeper understanding of their particular behavior regarding any product or service.

Opportunity management

  • Salesforce provides an opportunity to view the activity timeline of your customers. It represents different stages of a particular deal which helps you to decide your next move.
  • You can see critical details of the activity timeline in addition to the business competitors. The readymade templates ensure hassle-free emailing to the clients.

Quote management

  • Quote management of the products will have tracking of the products, which are part of your deal and it includes the standard price, product code, quantity, and quoted price. Also, you can establish quantity along with revenue schedule and it reflects the delivery terms and payment.
  • The Salesforce CRM app has a built-in quoting mechanism that automatically quotes client data. It also creates an approved template PDF and sends it directly to the customer as an email.

Lead management

  • Lead management is featured with an affluent activity timeline. It provides access to up-to-date contacts on the timeline. Also, it makes use of the sales paths to understand the related documents.
  • CRM app functions as a fast lead converter machine, which informs you about the original source of the leads. Automatic emailing boosts your revenue-generating mechanism.

Sales data

  • Using Salesforce CRM you can get the right sales data at the right time. It provides a faster connection with key decision-makers.
  • You can easily plan territories. It can be used for increasing sales and marketing productivity with the latest and most accurate data.


  • The Salesforce mobile app turns your mobile device into a portable sales office by allowing the users to access CRM data at any time and from anywhere.
  • You can log calls, work opportunities, check dashboards, respond to hot leads, etc.

Workflow and approvals

  • It allows the use of visual workflow to rapidly design and automate any of the business processes with drag and drop simplicity. And you can successfully manage flexible approvals processes for deal discounts, expenses, and more.

File sync and share

  • It’s easier to share files, discuss them, publish the best and track your content in real-time by using Salesforce.
  • You can quickly find what you are looking for, share it securely, and also subscribe to receive alerts when something changes.

Dynamic dashboards and custom reports

  • Dashboards offer a real-time picture of how your business is performing in the market. Users can recognize market trends, calculate the activities and clear up the quantities. You can build your own dashboard by using drag and drop icons in Salesforce CRM.
  • It allows creating your own customized sales forecasting report with Salesforce CRM. By using a simple drag and drop feature, users are able to adjust the fields and view data with filters. Charts provide real-time data to give you the latest insight.

Sales forecasting

  • It tracks the journey of the leads in the pipeline to look into whether they are reaching their destination i.e. deals or not. It gives brilliant forecasting on sales upon analyzing the same. You can apply your right judgment to the forecasted amount and according to that, you can plan your strategies.
  • You can make use of in-line editing, multi currency support, override visibility, etc. to stay on top of your business.
  • It gives the right credit to the right person and permits them to see the forecast as per overlays.

4. What is an object in Salesforce?

In Salesforce, objects are database tables that are used to store the data of an organization. There are two types of objects in Salesforce. They are:

  • Standard object: These are the objects provided by the Salesforce platform, which includes contacts, accounts, cases, campaigns, opportunities, leads, products, contracts, reports, dashboards, etc.
  • Custom object: They are objects created by developers based on the business process. It stores the important and unique information of an organization. It gives a structure for data sharing. The custom object includes page layouts, custom fields, relationship to other objects, custom user interface tab, etc.

5. What is meant by an App in Salesforce?

An App in Salesforce is a logical container that holds various details related to the company such as a logo, name, business operations, etc. You can customize apps to match your needs, or you can develop new applications by combining custom and standard tabs.

The process to create an app in Salesforce is given below:

Setup —> build—> Create—> App—> Click on new.

By following the above procedure, you can develop an application as you want.

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6.What does a custom object permit the user to do?

Once the custom object is defined, the subscriber can perform the following tasks:

  • Create custom fields
  • Relate the custom object to other records
  • Track events and tasks
  • Build page layouts
  • Create a custom tab for the custom object
  • Analyze custom object data
  • Create dashboards and reports
  • Share custom tabs, custom apps, custom objects, and various other related components.

7. What are the Salesforce subsidiaries?

The following are the major subsidiaries of Salesforce:

  • Tableau 
  • Pardot
  • Heroku
  • Mulesoft
  • Demandware Inc
  • SalesforceIQ

None of these tasks can be accomplished until the custom object has a definition.

8. What type of apps can we create in SF?

We can create two types of Apps in Salesforce

Custom app: This type of app can be used in every business scenario. It is widely used in the market.

Console app: This type of app can be used only in the client service business, where we focus on solving the client’s issues. It is not, comparatively, widely used in the market.

9. What is Self-Relationship?

A Self-Relationship is a lookup relationship to the same object. It is this premise that allows users to take the object “Merchandise” and create relationships with other objects.

10. What is Object Relationship Overview?

In Salesforce, the object relationship overview links custom object records to standard object records in a related list. This is helpful to track product defects in related customer cases.

Salesforce allows users to define different types of relationships by creating custom relationship fields on an object.

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11. What can cause data loss in Salesforce?

Data loss in Salesforce can be caused by a number of reasons, including:

  • Changing data and date-time.
  • Migrating to percent, number, and currency from other data types.
  • Changing from the multi-select picklist, checkbox, auto number to other types.
  • Altering to multi-select picklist from any type except picklist.
  • Changing to auto-number except for text.
  • Changing from text-area to email, phone, URL, and text.

12. How is SaaS beneficial to Salesforce?

SaaS is subscription-based, so clients can choose not to renew and discontinue using the program at any time without penalty other than not being able to use Salesforce.

SaaS is intended to help users avoid heavy initial startup fees and investments. SaaS applications use a simple Internet interface supported by easy integration.

13. How does Salesforce track sales?

Salesforce is a tracking program that records a number of helpful basic details, such as:

  • Number of customers served daily
  • Daily sales volume
  • Detailed reports from Sales Manager
  • Sales figures by month or quarter
  • Most importantly, Salesforce tracks and reports repeat customer activity, which is the key to any sales organization.

14. How many types of relationships are offered by

Salesforce recognizes two relationship types: Master-detail relationships and Lookup relationships.

15. What is the trigger?

The trigger is the code that is executed before or after the record is updated or inserted.

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16. What is the difference between Trigger and Workflow?

This is one of the most frequently asked Salesforce interview questions. Workflow is an automated process that fires an action based on evaluation criteria and rule criteria.

As described above, the Trigger is the code that is executed on or after the record is updated or inserted.

17. What is a static resource in Salesforce?

With Salesforce’s static resource, subscribers can upload zip files, images, jar files, JavaScript, and CSS files that can be referred to in a Visualforce page. The optimum size of static resources in Salesforce is 250 MB.

18. If I don't provide any arguments on the command line, then what will the value stored in the String array passed into the main() method, empty or NULL? is  Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS), while is Software-as-a-Service (SaaS).

19. Is there a limit for records?

Salesforce users can see their limit form setup easily by simply clicking administration/Users. From the users section, the users can see their monthly limit and exactly how many records are exported during the month.

20. What are the three types of object relations in Salesforce?

In Java, access specifiers are the keywords which are used to define the access scope of the method, class, or a variable. In Java, there are four access specifiers given below.

  • Public The classes, methods, or variables which are defined as public, can be accessed by any class or method.
  • Protected Protected can be accessed by the class of the same package, or by the sub-class of this class, or within the same class.
  • Default Default are accessible within the package only. By default, all the classes, methods, and variables are of default scope.
  • Private The private class, methods, or variables defined as private can be accessed within the class only.

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21. What are the different types of reports available in Salesforce?

The different types of reports in Salesforce are:

  • Tabular report that displays the grand total in table form 
  • Matrix report where grouping is based upon both rows and columns
  • Summary reports are detailed reports in which the grouping is based on columns.
  • Joined report which allows two or more reports to be joined in a single report

22. Is it possible to schedule a dynamic dashboard in Salesforce?

In Salesforce, it is not possible to schedule a dynamic dashboard.

23. What is the junction object and what purpose does it serve?

Junction objects are used to build many-to-many relationships between objects. For example, the user can take a recruiting application where a position for a job can be linked to many candidates or can link a candidate to many other jobs.

To connect the data model, a third-party object is referred to as a junction object. In the given example, the junction object is “job application.”

24. What is an Audit Trail?

The Audit Trail function in Salesforce is useful for gaining information or for tracking all the recent setup changes that the administration has done in the organization. The audit trail can preserve data for up to six months.

25. Explain the Salesforce dashboard?

In Salesforce, the dashboard is a pictorial representation of the report. 20 reports can be added to a single dashboard.

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26. What are the benefits of using Salesforce CRM?

 We get the following benefits by using Salesforce CRM.   

  • Improved organizational understanding.
  • Enhanced communication.
  • We can understand the customer better and can facilitate better services.
  • Salesforce automates repeated rule-based tasks.
  • Improved analytics and dashboards to analyze the data.
  • Reduction in cost and cycle time.
  • Improves the efficiency of teams.

27. What is a profile? Can two users have the same profile?

The profile is defined as a collection of rules and procedures a person needs to follow to access particular records. There are multiple profiles available in Salesforce. For example, a sales profile can have access to leads, opportunities, contacts, campaigns, etc.

As far as the second question is considered, the answer would be yes. The people who work in one department have the same profile. So the people who work under a particular department would be assigned with the same profiles.

As we have seen in the sales profile, many people work under it and every person who works under is assigned the same profile. Hence any number of people can have the same profile.

28. Explain the difference between role and profile?

Role: In Salesforce Role is meant to increase the data visibility to a particular user. It can be done through sharing rules or by building a role hierarchy. Using roles, you can control the ac

Profile: Unlike the roles profile is mandatory for all, and it stays at the object level. It is treated as a building pillar of an organization.

29. How many relationships do we have in Salesforce?

We have three types of relationships in Salesforce, which are:

  • Master-detail relationship
  • Lookup relationship
  • External Lookup

30. What is the Master-Detail relationship?

This Master-Detail relationship is the same as the relationship between a parent & child. In this aspect, the master is treated as  Parent, and the Detail is a child. The master Object takes control of the behavior of the Detail object.

The survival of the child is dependent on the parent because if the Master gets deleted the Detail will also automatically get deleted. You can create Roll-up summary fields in master records which helps in calculating the Min, Avg, and Sum of the child records.

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31. What is a “Lookup Relationship”?

The relationship between the two objects is called a lookup relationship. Lookup relationships connect two object links together so that you can look up from related items to other items. It can be one-to-one or one to many.

32. What is an External lookup?

The external lookup relationship is used to connect the child object to the parent object. The child object may be either a custom, standard, or external object.

It is used to identify the correct map of the child object with the parent external object. The external lookup relationship values fields are matched against the External Id values. 

33. What is the sharing rule?

Sharing rules are applied when a user wishes to permit access to other users like public groups, roles, or territories. It gives greater access to particular users by making automatic exceptions to your organization-wide sharing settings.

You can define total sharing rules up to 300 for a particular object, including criteria-based or guest user sharing rules up to 50, if available for the object.

34. What is a profile in Salesforce? Can two users have the same profile?

The profile in Salesforce is defined as a collection of settings and permissions that define what a user can do in Salesforce. So it gives you the authority to access certain records in Salesforce. There are multiple profiles available in Salesforce.

For example, a sales profile can have access to leads, contacts, campaigns, opportunities, etc.

The people who work under one department may be assigned the same profiles. Consider the case of a sales profile, many people work under it and each person who works under this is assigned the same profile.

Hence we can say that any number of people can have the same profile.

35. What is a Master–Detail relationship in Salesforce?

  • Master-Detail relationship is a relationship between a parent and child where the master represents the parent and the detail represents a child. This relationship can be used when we want to control the display of detail records based on the value present in the master record.
  • The master object completely takes control of the behavior of the Detail object. The survival of the child is dependent on the parent, because if the parent gets deleted then the child automatically gets deleted. You can create Roll-up summary fields in master records which will calculate the SUM, AVG, and MIN of the child records.
  • Consider an example of a courier company model, where a delivery schedule is always linked to a delivery location. If we delete a delivery location from our list, then all the related delivery schedules should also be removed. Such a dependency can be achieved only through a Master-Detail relationship.

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36. What are the benefits of using Salesforce CRM?

The benefits of using Salesforce CRM is given below:

  • Communicate using automation tools: With the help of Salesforce Einstein Bots, its features can automatically respond to chats on time. Thus avoids giving delayed responses.
  • Data syncing from different applications: Data from other applications such as MailChimp and G Suite can be integrated into the Salesforce platform. This removes the difficulty of moving from one software to another. Using Salesforce mobile app, you can keep track of your data anytime and anywhere.
  • Utilization of data analytics tools: Salesforce’s Einstein Analytics gives insights so that users can address the changing data right away. Salesforce has a collection of reporting tools and dashboards that will help you collect information and work on it properly.
  • Following customer activity: It helps to understand the customer’s journey through the sales cloud so that you will have easier access to their behavior and background. You can review the click rates on your email campaigns to help you recognize what works best for your customers.
  • Assisting customers through chat: A chat box is provided by the service cloud’s live agent depending on the interaction of your customers or followers on your web page. By connecting with the customer profile, your service team can deliver answers. This is helpful in improving customer experiences by letting agents respond quickly.
  • Using an omnichannel feature: Multi-channel feature provided by the service cloud automatically shifts conversations from various channels directly to the agents. This gives them one place to connect with customers through calls, social media, chat, messaging, or email.
  • Consistent engagement with current customers: Looking for a new customer is more expensive than keeping the current ones. Use the gathered data in Salesforce’s CRM to create consistent marketing campaigns.
  • You can build apps:, a Platform as a Service(PaaS) simplifies customizing and building apps for any device without using a complicated infrastructure.

37. What is Apex in Salesforce?

  • Apex is a strongly typed and object-oriented programming language that permits developers to execute flow and transaction control statements on Salesforce platform servers in conjunction with calls to the API. It uses syntax that looks similar to Java and pretends like database stored procedures.
  • Apex allows developers to add business logic to many system events, including Visualforce pages, button clicks, and related record updates. This code can be initiated by requests from web services and from triggers on objects.
  • All Apex code runs completely on-demand on the Lightning platform. Apex code is written and saved to the platform by developers. Through the user interface, end-users trigger the execution of Apex code.

38. What are Governor limits in Salesforce?

  • Governor limits control how much data a shared database can store. They help to make sure that no one monopolizes the shared resources like storage, CPU, and memory. Whenever the Apex code exceeds the limit, it issues a runtime exception that cannot be handled.
  • The following list gives some of the governor limits in Salesforce:
    • Push notification limits
    • Per-Transaction Apex limits
    • Size-Specific Apex limits
    • Miscellaneous Apex limits
    • Static Apex limits
    • Email limits
  • Examples of governor limits in Salesforce:
    • The total number of sendEmail methods permitted is 10.
    • The total number of records retrieved by a SOQL query is 50,000.
    • Maximum CPU time on the Salesforce servers is 10,000ms on synchronous Apex.
    • The total number of callouts(web services calls or HTTP requests) in a transaction is 100.

39. What is a junction object in Salesforce?

Junction objects are useful in building many-to-many relationships between objects in Salesforce.

Consider an example of a recruiting application, where a position for a job is linked to many candidates or a candidate can apply for many other jobs.

Here, a third-party object “job application” is referred to as a junction object to connect the data model. In the above-given example, “job application” is the junction object.

40. What are the different ways to share a record?

  • Role hierarchy: When a user is added to a role, all users above the current user in the role hierarchy have access to reading and sharing the records and inheriting permissions. The steps for role hierarchy are: 

Setup → Manage Users → roles → set up roles and click on ‘add role’, → create a name and click on save.

  • OWD: Organization-Wide Defaults allow you to define an organization’s baseline setting and give permissions to the organization-wide. It helps define a user’s accessibility level where they can view other users’ records. For OWD, follow these steps:

Setup → Security Controls → click on ‘sharing settings’ → Edit. 

  • Manual sharing: For sharing a single record/file to a particular user/group of users via manual access. A button is available on the detail page of the record when the OWD setting is private.
  • Criteria based sharing rules: We have to share records based on conditions. For instance, share records with a user/group with the criteria of the country- India. The steps for sharing are: 

Setup → security controls → sharing settings → select the object, provide name and conditions, and then click on save.

  • Apex sharing: One can share every object in Salesforce by creating a record for the shared object.

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41. What do you understand about the Future annotation(@future)?

Future annotations specify methods that are executed asynchronously. These methods with future annotation should be static and can only return a void type.

The arguments mentioned should be primitive data types/collections of primitive data types/ arrays of primitive data types. 

A method specified with @future annotation will be executed once Salesforce has available resources.

42. Explain the types of SOQL statements in Salesforce.

The Salesforce Object Query Language or SOQL is employed in querying the records from as and when required. The two types of SOQL statements are as follows:

  • Static SOQL: It is written using [] (array brackets) and is similar to LINQ (Ion Integrated Query). It is suitable when there are no dynamic changes in the SOQL query. 
  • Dynamic SOQL: It is suitable for referring to the SOQL string creation at run time with Apex code. It allows the creation of more flexible applications. For instance, you can create a search based on updated records or end-user input with varying field names

43. What are the various types of email templates available in Salesforce?

  • Text: All the users in an organization have access to creating or changing these templates.
  • HTML with letterhead: Users with the “Edit HTML Templates” permission and administrators can create these templates based on a letterhead. 
  • Custom HTML: These are an extension of HTML with a letterhead. Administrators and users with “Edit HTML Templates” permissions can create them without using the letterhead.
  • Visualforce: Administrators and developers can create them using Visualforce. They have advanced functionalities such as merging with a recipient’s data.

44. What is Salesforce Lightning?

Salesforce Lightning is a component-based application development framework with a collection of tools and technologies for effectively increasing the Salesforce platform’s performance.

The tools include visual upgrades, optimized interfaces, and more. It simplifies processes for business users who have no programming experience.

It allows the easy and quick creation of applications that solve business issues and enhance engagement. Some key features are:

  • Provides a drag-drop facility for app creation and customization.
  • Has tools and extensions for the development of reusable components.
  • AppExchange for over 50 partner components. 
  • Has style guides and provides user experience practices for app development.
  • Lightning Connect is an integration tool for applications of to consume data from an external source that meets the OData specification.

45. State two examples of Salesforce API and their usage.

Salesforce has several APIs for developers to interact with the system. Examples of Salesforce API are: 

  • Streaming: The Streaming API is useful for triggering and receiving notifications when a change is made to Salesforce data according to the defined SOQL query criteria. It can be used to push notifications from the server to the client based on defined criteria.
  • Bulk: It provides programmatic access for quick loading and querying a huge amount of data into your Salesforce organization.

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46. What are the permission sets?

A Permission set is a collection of settings or permissions and is used to extend the user’s functional access without changing actual profiles.

You can use permission sets for various types of users to extend the functionality access regardless of their roles. It is a time taking task to create a profile; instead of this, you could easily create a permission set.

47. What is the sharing rule?

If we want to give access to other users we use sharing rules.

48. What are the default indexed fields in Salesforce?

We have some fields which are indexed by default in Salesforce, which are :

  • Name 
  • ID 
  • Owner fields 
  • Master-detail relationship fields 
  • Lookup fields 
  • Last modified dates 
  • Audit dates

49. What is the Fiscal year in Salesforce?

The Fiscal year is known as the starting and ending date of a company’s financial year. We have two types of financial years in Salesforce which are as follows. 

  1. Standard fiscal year 
  2. Custom fiscal year

50. List some examples of custom fields?

There are many custom fields available such as Picklist, Currency, Date, Text, Picklist  (multi-select), Email, Percent, Number, Phone, Text area, Lookup relationship, Geolocation, Checkbox, Master-Detail relationship, etc..

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51. What are the different ways to store various types of records in Salesforce?

We have five different ways in Salesforce to store various types of records such as images, files, and documents.  

They are 

  • Attachments 
  • Google drive 
  • Chatter Files 
  • Libraries 
  • Attachments.

52. What is the main difference between data table vs page block table tags?

The differences between the Data table and Page block

Page block:

  • It defines inside the page block station or page block
  • To design the visual pages uses style sheets
  • The required attribute is “value”
  • Automatically it will display Column Headers


  • No need to mention inside the page block station or page block
  • No required value.
  • The data will be displayed using custom style sheets.
  • we need to specify column headers explicitly. 

53. What can cause data loss in Salesforce?

There are many things that can contribute to the data loss in Salesforce. Which includes : 

  1. Migrating to number, percent, and money, from other data types. 
  2. When you change the date and time 
  3. Migrating to multi-select picklist from any other type but except picklist. 
  4. Moving from Checkbox, auto number,multi-select picklist to any other types. 
  5. Changing text area to phone, URL, email, or text. 

54. What is the junction object and what is it used for?

Junction objects are mainly used to create a many-to-many relationship in Salesforce. If you consider a recruiting application as an example, you can find a position that is linked to many candidates, and in the same fashion, a candidate can apply for many positions. 

55. How does Salesforce track sales details?

Salesforce gives the accurate results of following things such as 

  • Number of customers served on a daily basis 
  • Regular sales numbers 
  • Complete reports from the Sales Manager. 
  • Generates sales reports on a timely basis 
  • It provides the details of repeat customer activity

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56. Is it possible to restrict access to data using sharing rules?

The sharing rules are used only for allowing greater access to records not for restricting.

57. Can we schedule a dynamic dashboard in Salesforce?

No, we can not do that in Salesforce.

58. How many ways can we share a record?

Role Hierarchy :

If we add a user to a role, the user who is above in the role hierarchy will have read access.

Setup → manage users → roles → setup roles → click on ‘add role’ → provide name and save.


  • Defines the baseline setting for the organization.
  • Defines the level of access to the user can see the other user’s record

OWD can be Private, Public Read Only, Public Read and Write.

Setup → Security Controls → sharing settings → Click on ‘Edit’

Manual Sharing :

Manual Sharing is sharing a single record to a single user or group of users.

We can see this button detail page of the record and this is visible only when the OWD setting is private.

60. What are the different types of reports available in Salesforce?

Reports will give a clear picture to the management. Management will make use of reports to track progress towards its various goals, increase revenue, and control expenditure. Reports will also help to predict trends and thus give the advantage of the increase in profits.

There are four types of reports in Salesforce. They are as follows:

  • Matrix report
    • A report is formed by grouping the records by rows as well as columns. It is used when you want to see data in two separate dimensions that aren’t related, such as date and product.
    • Example: Summarize opportunities by account horizontally and by month vertically.
  • Summary report
    • A report that provides a listing of data with groupings and subtotals. It is used when subtotals are needed, based on the value of a particular field, or when you want to create a hierarchically grouped report.
    • Example: All opportunities for your team subtotaled by owner and sales stage.
  • Tabular report
    • A report that provides details of a company in tabular format. It is used when you want a simple list or an item list with a grand total.
    • Example: These reports are used to list all accounts, list of opportunities, list of contacts, etc.
  • Joined report
    • A report that is created by the mixture of any combination of reports. Like a matrix report plus summary report can give you a joined report. Also, matrix reports and tabular reports can give a joined report.
    • Example: You can develop a report to display opportunity, case, and activity data for your accounts.

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61. Explain the platform is the entire framework and codebase on which the whole Salesforce application exists.

We can also say that Salesforce is built on, which is a Platform as a Service (PaaS) that allows us to simplify the design, development, and deployment of cloud-based applications and websites.

Developers can work with Cloud Integrated Development Environment (Cloud IDE) and deploy the applications on the servers of

62. Explain different components of the dashboard available in Salesforce.

Some of Salesforce dashboard components are explained below:

  • Gauge: It is used for displaying a single value within a custom value range.
  • Metric: This is used for showing a single pair of key–values. We can enter the metric label directly on the components by clicking the empty text field next to the grand total. All metrics placed in the dashboard column would be displayed as a single component.
  • Table: Tables are used for showing report data in the form of lists. For example, top five or bottom five opportunities.
  • Visualforce page: It is used for forming a custom component as a dashboard or displaying information that is not available in other component types.
  • Charts: It is used for showing comparisons. Charts are divided into 6 types. They are line Chart, vertical bar chart, horizontal bar chart, donut, pie, and funnel.

63. What are validation rules in Salesforce?

  • Validation rules in Salesforce consist of a formula or expressions that evaluate the data in one or more fields in a record to meet the standards you specify before the user can save the record. It returns a “True” or “False” value based on the evaluation of the data. Validation rules are responsible for displaying an error message to the user when the condition is “True” due to an invalid value.
  • Validation rules are helpful in enforcing integrity constraints against the data. Here we give conditions in the formula editor. If one validation rule fails, Salesforce proceeds to check another validation rule held within the field or record and shows an appropriate error message at that particular field or above the record.
  • You are allowed to create validation rules for fields, objects, campaign members, or case milestones. For example, we can create a validation rule that fires when a user tries to save an account with the incorrect length for the account number.

64. What causes data loss in Salesforce?

There are many things that cause data loss in Salesforce. They are:

Human error:

  • When editing an object definition (incorrectly changing a picklist), importing data (overwriting good data with bad), or merging households are the common situations where human error may occur.
  • For example, when you import data, it becomes important to match up fields. Situations like moving to percent, number, and money from other data types or changing text area to URL, email, phone or text, etc. will lead to incorrect match in fields. If you are updating a large number of records and match up incorrect fields, your records will be invalid.

Accidental deletion of Salesforce data:

  • A record (or multiple records) might be accidentally deleted by users or employees. Deleting records could be because of miscommunication, forgetting to remove a contact from being deleted, and many other reasons. So proper training and having a trusted backup/recovery solution are very important.

Purposeful deletion of Salesforce data:

  • Disgruntled employees like the person who has recently got a very bad performance review and thinks their job is at stake or who is jealous of other employees might try to delete the data. A few clicks on the delete button may lead to the deletion of multiple records from Salesforce.
  • If they empty their recycle bin, that data recovery will be difficult using the Weekly Export. It can cause numerous damages if these records are not backed up properly.

Data sync errors:

  • If you have more than one admin or use Outlook for Salesforce, you might experience a data sync error at some point.
  • For example, one admin is trying to refresh a sandbox while another admin is working from home and trying to edit an object type in that same sandbox. When this happens, the admin who was editing the object can lose his work in progress.
  • Contacts in Outlook can overwrite good Salesforce data when using Outlook for Salesforce, introducing errors through inappropriate sync.

65. What is Visualforce inṣ

  • Visualforce can be defined as the UI for the platform that allows developers to build sophisticated, custom user interfaces which can be hosted natively on the Lightning platform.
  • This Visualforce framework includes a tag-based markup language, a set of server-side “standard controllers” that forms basic database operations(such as queries and saves) and each Visualforce tag corresponds to a user interface component such as a field, section of a page, or a related list, etc.
  • It works on the standard MVC model. It can have strong integration with the database and deploy auto-generated controllers for database objects. The behavior of Visualforce components can be controlled by the developer, by utilizing the same logic that was used in standard Salesforce pages. It is also possible for a developer to associate their own logic with a controller class written in Apex code.

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66. What are record types in Salesforce?

  • Salesforce record types permit us to associate different business processes and display different picklist values and page layouts to different users based on the user profile.
  • Administrators have the ability to associate record types with the user profiles so that, in the record’s detail page, different users will be able to see different picklist values and page layouts.
  • For example, consider a case where record types are most often used i.e., to create two different sales processes on the Opportunity object. Each of them with different sales stages and page layouts. This will indicate that with record types you will be able to apply multiple page layouts per object as well as per user profile.
  • Benefits of record types:
    • It modifies user interaction experience to specific needs of the business.
    • Allows for administration in a simple manner as there are fewer fields to maintain.

67. What are page layouts related to Salesforce?

  • Page layouts are used to control the layout and organization of buttons, fields, Visualforce, custom links, s-controls, and related lists on object record pages.
  • They are helpful in organizing user interface pages by determining which fields, related lists, and custom links are required, read-only, and visible for the user.
  • We can create many page layouts and apply them to different user groups, with the aim of creating a customized experience. For example, you could have a single account record like ACME Corp., but it displays different information depending on your user profile.
  • Here, you can only apply the one-page layout to a single group of users per object, per record type. For example, if you have one record type based on the Accounts object, you can apply only one-page layout per profile.

68. What are the two types of triggers in Salesforce?

Below are the two types of Apex triggers in Salesforce:

Before triggers: It can be used to update or validate record values before it is saved to the database.

trigger TriggerName on ObjectName(before event) //Here event can be insert, update or delete




After triggers: It can be used to access field values of the records that are set by the system (such as record’s ID or LastModifiedDate field) that are stored in the database and use this field value to do the changes in other records. Records that fire after the triggers are read-only.

trigger TriggerName on ObjectName(after event) //Here event can be insert, update or delete




69. What is the Roll-up summary field?

We use the Roll-up summary field to calculate the values for the associated records, for example, a related list. We can also use it for creating the values for a master record- according to the values in detailed records.

But, we must connect the master and the detail with a master-detail relationship.

70. Explain Queues?

In Salesforce, Queues help us to distribute, prioritize, and assign the records to the teams for sharing workloads. Queues are applicable to leads, service contracts, custom objects, cases, etc. 

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71. Explain Time-dependent workflow?

We perform time-dependent actions at particular times before closing the record. Workflow re-evaluates the record after time passes. It checks whether the workflow rule criteria are satisfied, and only then workflow rules execute the actions.

72. What is the Workflow Task and Workflow Alert?

Workflow Task

When we have to assign the tasks to a salesforce user, you haunt a workflow task. Workflow task allocates a new task to a role, user, or record owner. It assists us in defining different task parameters like a priority, status, due date,  and subject.

Workflow Alert

Workflow Alert is an email that an approval process or a workflow rule creates in the salesforce and is transmitted to different recipients.

73. Explain Auto-Response?

Auto-Response is about transmitting emails to leads or cases for particular record attributes and promptly responding to customer inquiries or issues by establishing the auto-response rule. At the same time, we can set one rule for a lead and one rule for a case.

74. Explain Custom Labels?

In Salesforce, we use custom labels for creating a multilingual application.  Using the native language, they give information to users in the form of help texts and error messages.

We can define the custom labels as custom text values that we can access from the Apex class or Lightning components and promptly or even the Visualforce page.

We can translate these values into the language supported by the salesforce. Through the following path, we can access custom labels:

Setup->Search Custom Labels in Quick Find Box->Custom Labels

75. What are Sharing rules and what are the different types of sharing rules?

Sharing rules give sharing access to the users associated with the public groups, roles or territories. It gives a higher level of access with the exceptions, far from our organization settings. Following are the two kinds of sharing rules:

  • Criteria-based Sharing rules: Access is provided according to the record values and not according to the record owners. 
  • Owner-based Sharing Rule: These rules provide access to the records owned by the users.

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76. What are Governor Limits?

To assure that no one gains resources from others, establishes various restrictions(governor limits) that limit code execution. Salesforce must do this due to its multi-tenant architecture, where all the customers and organizations share one resource.

If the governor’s limits are not satisfied, an error will rise, and the program execution will terminate. Following are the types of Governor limits:

  • Static Apex Limits
  • Per-transaction Apex Limits
  • Size-specific Apex Limit
  • Per-transaction Certified Managed Package Limits

77. Define the Approval process?

In Salesforce, the Approval process is a sequence of steps for approving records. An approval process is also helpful for tracking who and when approved or rejected something. It includes different approval models, notifying approvers, and conditional logic for who must support. 

78. What is the importance of Salesforce Chatter?

Salesforce Chatter is a social networking application that enables us to share information and work cooperatively with each other. It helps us to build greater employee engagement through motivation.

Salesforce Chatter also provides a forum throughout the enterprise for sharing fresh ideas and understandings. We can also use the mobile feed for tracking our project.

79.What is Apex test coverage?

To assure that our code satisfies particular standards, Apex test coverage displays to you how many lines of code in our classes or triggers have been tested by the tested methods.

Test coverage percentage is the result of the number of covered lines divided by the sum of uncovered lines and covered lines. To deploy to production, we need a minimum of 75% test coverage.

80.Explain Lightning Message Service(LMS)?

Lightning message service is a distinctive salesforce feature that allows interaction between Aura, Lightning Web Components, and Visualforce over the same lightning page. We can use the Lightning message service in Lightning Experience only.

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81. Define OAuth?

OAuth is a standard for access delegation. Generally, we use it as a method for granting the applications or websites access to their data over other websites, yet without providing them with the passwords. 

82. Explain Connected App?

Connected App integrates the salesforce through APIs, and Connected Apps utilize OAuth, SAML for authenticating, providing sign-on, and providing tokens for using the Salesforce APIs.

Besides OAuth capabilities, connected apps eagle salesforce admins to establish different security policies and possess external control to utilize similar apps.

83. What is Pagination, and How can we achieve it?

For example, if we have to display 100 records over the page.

  • First: Display the first ten records.
  • Previous: Display previous ten records.
  • Next: Display the following ten records.
  • Last: Display the previous ten records.

We can perform the above process through Pagination. We can achieve pagination through the following ways:

Through StandardSetController

Through Offset and Limit keywords in SOQL Query

84. How do we display error messages on the VisualForce Page?

To display error messages on the VisualForce Page, we must use:


In Apex class, we must use:

ApexPages.addMessage(new ApexPages.Message(ApexPages.severity.Error, ‘Error Message’));


85. Explain a skinny table. What are the considerations for a skinny table?

Skinny tables in Salesforce are useful in accessing the fields which are frequently used and avoiding joins. This can improve the performance of certain read-only operations such as reports, list views, etc.

Skinny tables are highly effective because skinny tables will be in sync with source tables even when the source tables are modified. 

You need to contact Salesforce customer support if you want to use skinny tables. You cannot create, access, or modify skinny tables yourself. For example, you need to contact Salesforce to update your skinny table definition if you want to add new fields.

Considerations for skinny tables are:

  • It can contain an utmost of 100 columns.
  • It cannot hold fields from other objects.
  • For full sandboxes, these skinny tables are copied to your full sandbox organizations. For other types of sandboxes, skinny tables are not copied into your sandbox organizations. To have production skinny tables to be activated, contact Salesforce customer support.

The below figure displays an Account view, a corresponding database table along with a skinny table that can speed up account queries.

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86.What do you mean by a sandbox in Salesforce?

A sandbox is a copy of the production environment/ organization and it is used for testing and development.

It’s very useful because sandboxes are completely isolated from your Salesforce production organization, so it allows you to test out new ideas on the duplicate database without disturbing the original production environment.

You can use the sandbox whenever you want to test a newly formed application or Visualforce page. Instead of testing it directly in production, you can develop and test it in the sandbox organization.

Using this, you can develop the application without any difficulty and then migrate the metadata and data to the production environment.

Doing this in a non-production environment permits developers to freely test and experiment with the newly created applications.

There are four types of sandboxes in Salesforce:

Developer sandbox:

  • It is a copy of the production organization, it copies all the information of an application and configuration to the sandbox. It is mainly used for the development and testing tasks in an isolated environment.
  • This type of sandbox has limitations of up to 200MB of test or sample data. You can refresh a developer’s sandbox once a day.

Developer pro sandbox:

  • It copies all of your organization’s reports, dashboards, apps, price books, products, and customizations under setup. But it excludes all of your organization’s custom and standard object records, attachments, and documents.
  • This type of sandbox has limitations of up to 1GB of test or sample data. We can refresh developer pro sandboxes once a day.

Partial data sandbox:

  • A partial data sandbox is a developer sandbox plus the data you define in a sandbox template, which is intended to be used only as a testing environment. It includes the reports, dashboards, price books, applications, products, and customizations under the setup (including all of your metadata).
  • Additionally, these sandboxes can have your organization’s custom and standard object records, documents, and attachments up to 5 GB of data along with a maximum of 10,000 records per chosen object.
  • A partial data sandbox is smaller compared to a full sandbox and has a shorter refresh interval. You can refresh partial data sandboxes every 5 days.
  • Sandbox templates permit you to select specific data and objects to copy to your sandbox, thus you can control the size as well as the content of each sandbox. Sandbox templates are available only for partial data or full sandboxes.

Full sandbox:

  • It is a replica of production including custom and standard object records, attachments, and documents and is used only as a testing environment.
  • You can refresh full-copy sandboxes every 29 days.

87. How many ways can we share a record?

With the help of the given below methods we can share records in Salesforce:

Role hierarchy:

  • Whenever a user is added to a role, the user above the current user in the hierarchy of roles will have access to reading the records and inheriting the permissions.
  • Follow the steps for role hierarchy: Go to Setup → find manage users’ → roles → set up roles → click on ‘add role’ → provide name and click on save.


  • OWD(Organization-Wide Defaults) allows you to give permissions to the organization-wide and to define baseline settings for the organization. It is also helpful in defining the user’s accessibility level to the user where a user can see other user’s records.
  • OWD settings can be Public Read Only, Private, Public Read, and Write.
  • Follow the steps for OWD: Go to Setup → find the Security Controls → click on ‘sharing settings’ → click on ‘Edit.

Manual sharing:

  • Manual sharing is sharing a single record/file to a single user or group of users through manual access.
  • We can see a button for manual sharing on the detail page of the record and it can be seen only when the OWD setting is private.

Criteria based sharing rules:

  • If we want to share records based on conditions such as sharing records with a group of users with the criteria of the country is India.
  • Follow the steps for criteria-based sharing rules: Go to Setup → security controls → sharing settings → select the object and provide name and conditions then click on save.

Apex sharing:

  • Sharing objects are available for each and every object in Salesforce. For example, the Account object’s share object is AccountShare.
  • By using Apex, if we want to share the records then we have to create a record to the shared object.

88. What is a wrapper class in Salesforce?

A wrapper class is a type of container class, which contains a group of objects as its members. It is of an abstract data type.

We use a wrapper class for enclosing the collected data. A wrapper class is defined by a programmer that acts as a custom object, along with wrapper class properties.

The instances of a wrapper class help display various objects in the corresponding table on a Visualforce page.

Some of the main advantages of using wrapper class by developers in Salesforce are given below:

  • The wrapper class structure is as efficient as that of a good data visualization process for a web page, especially in the case where the developers are dealing with the JSON structure.
  • The developers are not required to manage the passing of any map structure to browse necessary elements. Moreover, the usage of wrapper class by developers will lead to ease in the process of managing relationships between different objects.
  • Wrapper class usage prevents any penalty faced by the users for passing an object of Salesforce. Also, it makes the respective object extendable to the constructors of a class.
  • The use of the wrapper class supports the developers in efficiently organizing the concerned data, provided the data is properly nested.

89. What is Future annotation(@future)?

  • Future annotations are used to specify methods that are executed asynchronously.
  • Methods having future annotation must be static methods and can only return a void type. The arguments specified must be primitive data types or arrays of primitive data types or collections of primitive data types. These methods cannot take sObjects or objects as parameters.
  • When you specify a method with @future annotation, it will be executed only when Salesforce has available resources.
  • For example, you can use future annotation while making an asynchronous web service callout to an external service. Whereas without the usage of future annotation, web service callout will be created from the same thread which is executing the Apex code, and no additional processing will take place until that callout is complete (synchronous processing).


global class class_name



    Static void methodname(parameters)


        //body of the method




90.What are the different types of email templates available in Salesforce?

The list of different types of email templates that can be created in Salesforce is given below:

  • Text: All the users in the organization are allowed to create or change these templates.
  • HTML with letterhead: Only administrators and users with the “Edit HTML Templates” permissions are able to create these templates based on a letterhead. The look and feel of your HTML email templates are defined by the letterheads. It can inherit the logo, text, and color settings from a letterhead.
  • Custom HTML: It is an extension of HTML with a letterhead. Administrators and users having “Edit HTML Templates” permissions can create custom HTML templates without using the letterhead. You must have knowledge about HTML or get the HTML code to insert it into your email template.
  • Visualforce: Administrators and developers are allowed to create these templates by using Visualforce. Visualforce templates provide advanced functionalities like merging with a recipient’s data, where the content of a template can have data from multiple records.

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91. How does Salesforce implement Sales Tracking?

Salesforce records data on the details like customer details, sales numbers, customer served, repeat customers and use of these records for creating detailed charts, dashboards, and reports. In this way, it tracks the sales of our organization.

92. What is the limit of the records that we can add to Salesforce?

In the user section of, we have to discover our name to see our monthly limit. It will provide details like how many records we can export or add for this month. The user enters setup and types the user in the Find box and chooses prospector users.   

93. Explain the methods of the Batch Apex Class?

The batch apex class deploys the database batchable interface with the three methods as follows:

Start: We use the start method at the beginning of the batch apex job. We use it for collecting the objects or records, for passing them to the interface for executing. It returns a DatabaseQueryLocator object that comprises objects or the records sent to the job.

Finish: We call this method once we finish the batch processing. We use this method to send confirmation emails or to execute the post-processing operations. 

Execute: We use this method for every batch of the records that are sent to the method. We use this method for data processing. This method does the following:

  • sObjects records list
  • Reference to the Database context.

94. What are the different types of Bindings?

Following are the different types of bindings:

  • Action Bindings: Action Bindings refers to action methods in the controller.
  • Data Bindings: Data Bindings refers to the data sets in the controller.
  • Component Bindings: Component Bindings refers to Visualforce components.

95) Explain reRender Attribute Tag?

The reRender attribute defines an elements list that we can update dynamically through the AJAX library of the Salesforce. We do not need the entire page to refresh. Only a part of the page detected by the components is named in the “.rerender” attribute.

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96) How can we display the Chatter Feed Record?

By using the <chatter: feed> component, we can display the chatter feed.



<chatter: feed entityId=”{!$User.Id}”/>


97) Explain the Blob variable?

Blob variable is the variable that is intended to gather binary data. tostring() converts the blob back into the string.

string string1=’test string’;

Blob blob = Blob.valueof(myString);

String String2 = myBlob.toString();


98) What is the use of apex:outputLink?

The apex: output link body comprises images or text that we can display in the link.

<apex: outputlink value=”” id=”theLink”> </apex:outputL

99. What is the Bulkification best practice?

We must avoid using index values like Trigger.New[0] as we never know how many records we get in Trigger.New at runtime.

  1. We need to use it for each loop whether we have 1 record or many.
  2. We must not use SOQL inside the loop.
  3. We must not use SOQL inside the loop.
  4. We must not use DML inside the loop.
  5. We need to store data in collections, so our code will work for single as well as multiple records

100. Can you give an example of a Salesforce API and its usage?

Salesforce provides a variety of APIs that allows the developers to interact with the system in many ways. They are:


  • By using REST API you can easily integrate with Salesforce applications using simple HTTP methods in either XML or JSON formats. It is an ideal API for developing mobile applications or external clients.
  • Consider an example of retrieving information about the Salesforce version. You need to submit a request for the Versions resource by using the following code:


  • You have to replace the “your instance” text with the instance for your organization.
    The output from this request is as follows.



        “label” : “Winter ’12”,

        “url” : “/services/data/v23.0”,

        “version” : “23.0”




Bulk: The Bulk API provides programmatic access that lets you quickly load and query a huge amount of data into your Salesforce organization.

Streaming: The Streaming API can be used to trigger and receive notifications, whenever changes into Salesforce data are made according to the defined SOQL query criteria. It is useful when you want notifications to be pushed from the server to the client based on your defined criteria.

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