Software Training Institute


Ethical Hacking Tutorials For Beginners

Ethical Hacking Tutorials For Beginners
Ethical Hacking Tutorials For Beginners

The term “hacker” is used to describe programmers who gain unauthorized control over computer systems by taking advantage of bugs or security gaps, either for criminal or playful reasons. This includes the development of algorithms that compromise networks, crack passwords, or impair network functionality.

Most hacking attempts are initiated to steal valuable information or money. But hacking isn’t always done with bad intentions. To identify weaknesses in a company’s security system and stop future breaches, ethical hackers break in.

The field of ethical hacking is quickly gaining acceptance. There are a few free online courses where you may learn how to hack, but it’s better to start by reading up on the fundamentals of hacking before digging into books and enrolling in the top training courses for ethical hacking.

What is Ethical Hacking?

Hacking is the simple procedure of identifying vulnerabilities in a system. Computer security experts that practice ethical hacking gain access to a system with the owner’s or administrator’s consent. Ethical hacking is a lawful form of hacking. 

Let’s use an illustration to assist you comprehend it: Imagine that you have developed a new program, such as Instagram, and that you have quickly attracted a wide range of users who can utilize your service. Imagine that your app has been hacked and has slowed down or started acting abnormally. 

At this point, you’ll need to work with a group of ethical hackers to identify any gaps or vulnerabilities in your application so that you can secure it from similar assaults in the future. These flaws sometimes cost companies their priceless data, their well-earned reputation, or even millions of dollars. Big organizations began engaging ethical hackers to uncover vulnerabilities in their systems in the 1970s to protect them from harmful attacks.

Different Types of Hackers?

White Hat hackers are those who engage in ethical hacking, which is also known as “White Hat” hacking. “Black Hat” hacking, in contrast to ethical hacking, refers to actions that violate security. Black Hat hackers compromise systems or destroy data using illegal methods.

“Grey Hat” hackers, in contrast to “White Hat” hackers, enter your system without your consent. But another way that Grey Hats vary from Black Hats is that they don’t engage in hacking for their own or other people’s gain. These hackers get into networks for entertainment or a variety of other purposes without harmful intent, frequently alerting the owner to any dangers they discover. Even though the goals of both types of hackers vary, both grey hat and black hat hacking are prohibited because they both involve an unauthorized system attack.

Types of Hacking

Network Hacking

Network hacking involves unauthorized access and manipulation of computer networks. Hackers may exploit weaknesses in network protocols, firewalls, or routers to gain unauthorized access to sensitive data or disrupt network operations. Network hacking poses serious risks, as intruders can potentially gain access to an organization's entire network infrastructure, compromising multiple systems and data simultaneously. Strong network security measures, such as regular security audits, implementing encryption, and using strong access controls, are essential in thwarting network hacking attempts.

Website Hacking

Website hacking refers to unauthorized access to, modification of, or disruption of websites and web applications. Hackers may exploit vulnerabilities in website code, content management systems (CMS), or web server configurations to gain control over the site. Website hacking can lead to defacement, data breaches, the spread of malware, and reputational damage for the affected organization. Regular security updates, rigorous testing, and best security practices can help protect websites from such attacks.

Password Hacking

Password hacking involves various techniques used to obtain passwords without the user's consent. Common methods include brute-force attacks, dictionary attacks, and phishing. In a brute-force attack, hackers try all possible combinations of characters until they find the correct password. A dictionary attack involves using a pre-made list of commonly used passwords. Phishing attacks, as mentioned earlier, deceive users into revealing their passwords unknowingly. To protect against password hacking, users should adopt strong and unique passwords for each account, enable multi-factor authentication (MFA) wherever possible, and remain cautious of suspicious email or website requests for passwords.

Email Hacking

Email hacking is the unauthorized access to an individual's email account. Hackers may use phishing attacks to trick users into revealing their email credentials or exploit security vulnerabilities in email service providers. Once an email account is compromised, hackers can monitor communications, steal personal data, and use the account to launch further phishing attacks on the victim's contacts. Protecting email accounts involves using strong passwords, enabling two-factor authentication (2FA), and being cautious when clicking on links or downloading attachments from unknown or suspicious sources.

Computer Hacking

Computer hacking is a broad term that encompasses unauthorized access to individual computer systems. It involves exploiting software vulnerabilities, weak passwords, or social engineering techniques to gain control over a computer. Once a hacker gains access to a computer, they can steal personal information, install malware, or use the compromised computer as a launchpad for further attacks on other systems or networks. Implementing strong passwords, keeping software up-to-date, and using reputable antivirus software can help prevent computer hacking.

Why is ethical hacking so important?

Data is becoming a priceless resource. As a result, it is now more crucial than ever to protect data integrity and privacy. In summary, ethical hacking is now very crucial because of this! This is partly caused by the fact that practically every company has a web-facing side today. The internet is being used as a medium for everything from content marketing to sales. Any endpoint being utilized to serve the medium is now potentially vulnerable.

In addition, hackers in the modern day have demonstrated that they are creative geniuses when it comes to breaking into a system. Fighting fire with fire may not be effective in the real world, but an organization requires someone who thinks along the same lines to defeat a hacker of this caliber. Millions of dollars have been lost as a result of recent hacking outages. These occurrences have served as a warning and caused organizations all around the world to reconsider their position on the significance of ethical hacking & cybersecurity.

After describing the duties and relevance of ethical hackers to an organization, we can now move on to this ethical hacking tutorial’s discussion of some of the fundamentals of ethical hacking. Enroll in the Ethical Hacking Certification course and earn your certification if you want to begin a career in ethical hacking.

It goes without saying that when it comes to cybercrime, more than just data is at risk. Cybercrime losses are estimated to be $945 billion, up from $522 billion in 2018, according to a 2020 analysis by the Centre for Strategic and International Studies and security software provider McAfee. They place the blame for these increased expenses on improved reporting and more potent hacking methods. 

Cybercrime can hurt public safety, economics, and national security in addition to causing the loss of data and money. Protecting businesses and their data is critical, and ethical hacking can be a key component of that protection.

Stages Of Hacking

The stages of hacking are described below in the steps.


The reconnaissance stage is the initial step taken by hackers to gather information about their target. They scour public sources, such as websites, social media platforms, online directories, and search engines, to collect valuable details about the target organization or individual. Hackers aim to identify potential vulnerabilities, weak points, and entry paths into the target's digital infrastructure. Through passive reconnaissance, hackers obtain information without directly interacting with the target's systems, reducing the risk of detection. The data collected during this stage helps hackers develop a strategy and choose the most effective attack vectors for breaching the target's defenses.


In the scanning stage, hackers use various tools and techniques to actively probe the target's network and systems for vulnerabilities. They may employ port scanners to identify open ports and services, network mappers to create a map of the network topology, and vulnerability scanners to discover software weaknesses and misconfigurations. By scanning the target's digital assets, hackers gain deeper insights into potential attack surfaces and weaknesses. The information acquired during this phase guides their further actions and assists in planning the best approach to exploit identified vulnerabilities.

Gaining Access

Armed with the data gathered during the reconnaissance and scanning stages, hackers proceed to exploit the identified vulnerabilities to gain unauthorized access to the target's systems. This is often the critical moment when hackers breach the target's defenses and achieve their primary objective. Hackers may use various methods to gain access, such as exploiting unpatched software vulnerabilities, conducting brute-force attacks to guess weak passwords, or deploying sophisticated phishing campaigns to deceive users into revealing their login credentials. Once successful, the hacker gains a foothold within the system, allowing them to move to the next stages of the intrusion process.

Maintaining Access

In the maintaining access stage, the hacker aims to establish persistence within the compromised system. To achieve this, they deploy stealthy techniques such as rootkits, backdoors, and remote access trojans (RATs). These malicious tools enable the hacker to retain access to the system even if their initial entry point is discovered and patched. Maintaining access is crucial for conducting prolonged reconnaissance, exfiltrating data, and launching subsequent attacks. With persistent access, the hacker can maintain control over the compromised system for an extended period, maximizing the impact of their actions.

Enumeration and Privilege Escalation

During this stage, the hacker explores the compromised system to gather more detailed information about its configuration, user accounts, and available resources. The process of enumeration involves listing users, groups, shared directories, and network services to map out the network's structure. In parallel, the hacker seeks ways to escalate their privileges within the system. Privilege escalation allows them to gain higher-level access rights and control over critical components, expanding their capabilities to conduct more sophisticated attacks.

Conducting the Attack

Once the hacker has established persistence, enumerated the network, and escalated privileges, they proceed to execute their primary objectives. The nature of the attack varies based on the hacker's motives, which may include data theft, data manipulation, ransomware deployment, or service disruption. Hackers employ sophisticated techniques to evade detection, such as using encrypted communication channels, employing anti-forensics tools, and leveraging rootkits to hide their presence. The goal is to achieve their objectives while remaining undetected for as long as possible.

Covering Tracks

After executing the attack, skilled hackers cover their tracks to minimize the risk of identification and traceability. They delete logs, manipulate system timestamps, and remove any evidence of their activities to hinder forensic investigations and maintain anonymity. By covering their tracks effectively, hackers reduce the likelihood of being discovered, making it more challenging for cybersecurity professionals to trace the attack back to its source.

Popular Ethical Hacking Tools

Ethical hacking, also known as penetration testing, involves authorized professionals using specialized tools to identify and address vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, and applications. These tools are essential for conducting thorough security assessments and strengthening cybersecurity defenses.

Nmap (Network Mapper)

Nmap is a powerful open-source network scanning tool used for network exploration and security auditing. Ethical hackers rely on Nmap to discover hosts, open ports, and services running on a network. By analyzing the scan results, security professionals can identify potential points of entry and weak spots in a network's infrastructure. Nmap is known for its flexibility, efficiency, and ability to perform stealthy scans to avoid detection.


Metasploit is one of the most widely used penetration testing frameworks in the cybersecurity community. It offers an extensive collection of exploit modules, payloads, and auxiliary tools that enable ethical hackers to simulate real-world cyber-attacks. Metasploit helps security experts identify and exploit vulnerabilities in various systems and applications, allowing organizations to assess their defenses against potential threats.

Burp Suite

Burp Suite is a comprehensive web vulnerability scanner and penetration testing tool designed specifically for web application security testing. Ethical hackers use Burp Suite to identify and exploit common web application vulnerabilities, such as SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), and cross-site request forgery (CSRF). It enables security professionals to assess web applications thoroughly and recommend remediation measures to strengthen their security.


Hashcat is a powerful password-cracking tool used by ethical hackers to test the strength of passwords and hashes. It supports multiple algorithms and utilizes GPU acceleration for faster password cracking. By running password cracking attacks with Hashcat, security professionals can assess the effectiveness of password policies and advise organizations on implementing stronger authentication measures.


Gobuster is a directory and file brute-forcing tool commonly used for web application testing. Ethical hackers utilize Gobuster to discover hidden directories, files, and sensitive information that may be accessible on a web server. By identifying these potential entry points, security experts can advise on securing the web application against unauthorized access.

Types of Ethical Hacking Jobs

As the importance of cybersecurity continues to grow, the demand for skilled professionals in the field of ethical hacking has increased. Ethical hackers, also known as cybersecurity analysts or penetration testers, play a crucial role in protecting organizations from cyber threats.

Penetration Tester

Penetration testers, commonly referred to as "pen testers," are ethical hackers responsible for simulating cyber-attacks on an organization's systems, networks, and applications. Their primary objective is to identify vulnerabilities and weaknesses that malicious hackers could exploit. Pen testers conduct controlled and authorized hacking attempts to assess the organization's security posture accurately. They then compile detailed reports with recommendations for improving defenses and mitigating risks.

Vulnerability Assessment Specialist

Vulnerability assessment specialists focus on identifying and assessing security vulnerabilities within an organization's digital infrastructure. Their work involves conducting thorough scans and tests using specialized tools to detect potential weaknesses. Unlike pen testers who actively exploit vulnerabilities, vulnerability assessment specialists primarily concentrate on documentation, risk analysis, and collaboration with IT teams to address identified issues promptly.

Security Analyst

Security analysts play a critical role in monitoring and analyzing security incidents and potential threats within an organization's network. They use various security tools and monitoring systems to detect suspicious activities, investigate incidents, and implement appropriate response measures. Security analysts also participate in incident response and recovery efforts, ensuring that cyber threats are promptly mitigated to minimize damage.

Network Security Specialist

Network security specialists are responsible for designing, implementing, and maintaining secure network infrastructures. They focus on configuring firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), virtual private networks (VPNs), and other security measures to safeguard critical data and prevent unauthorized access. Network security specialists continuously monitor network traffic for potential threats and promptly respond to any security breaches.

Application Security Specialist

Application security specialists concentrate on securing software applications from potential cyber threats. They perform code reviews, security assessments, and penetration testing on applications to identify and rectify security flaws. These specialists work closely with software development teams to integrate security best practices throughout the application development lifecycle.

Cybersecurity Consultant

Cybersecurity consultants are experts who offer specialized knowledge and guidance to organizations seeking to enhance their cybersecurity posture. They assess existing security measures, develop cybersecurity strategies, and provide tailored recommendations based on the organization's unique requirements. Cybersecurity consultants work across various industries, helping businesses implement effective security practices.

Data Security Analyst

An internal position with the primary responsibility for locating potential vulnerabilities in an IT system is that of a data or cyber security analyst. They will then put precautions in place to stop breaches, like building firewalls and encrypting data.

Network Administrator

This position also focuses on keeping computer networks up to date and resolving any issues they may have. They assist in locating and resolving any system-related difficulties in addition to establishing and configuring networks.