Software Training Institute


A Complete Guide To Manual Testing Course

A Complete Guide To Manual Testing Course

A Complete Guide To Manual Testing Course

When testing software manually, test cases are carried out by hand without the use of an automated testing tool. The test cases will be manually executed by testers from the viewpoint of the end user. It determines whether or not the application is operating as shown in the requirement document. It is one of the crucial testing procedures since it can find both obvious and hidden software defects. A bug is defined as the discrepancy between the output that was produced and what was anticipated.  

Software must first undergo manual testing before undergoing automation testing for all recently produced software. Although manual testing takes a lot of time and work, it guarantees that the product is bug-free. So, you must master manual testing if you want to have a successful career in software testing. 

Enroll in our manual testing training if you’d want to learn how to test manually. The average annual income for a manual tester in the US is roughly $112K, according to We will go over each manual testing concept in detail in this beginner’s manual testing guide.

What is Manual Testing?

Software testing that is conducted manually involves the development and execution of test cases by a software tester without the aid of any automated testing tools. Finding problems, bugs, and flaws in a software program is the primary goal of manual testing. Before performing the automation testing, any new software program needs to be manually tested. Manual Testing is crucial because of the principle of software testing “100% Automation is not possible”.

Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)

The Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) is a systematic approach that outlines the various stages and activities involved in testing a software application to ensure its quality and reliability. The STLC provides a structured framework for testers and QA professionals to plan, design, execute, and evaluate testing efforts.

Requirement Analysis

The first phase of the Software Testing Life Cycle involves thoroughly analyzing the software requirements and understanding the project scope. Testers collaborate closely with stakeholders, developers, and business analysts to gain clarity on the application's functionalities, user expectations, and intended outcomes. This analysis forms the basis for developing a comprehensive test plan and test cases that align with the project's objectives.

Test Planning

In this phase, the testing team develops a detailed test plan that outlines the testing strategy, scope, objectives, and deliverables. The test plan defines the testing approach, test environment, resource requirements, and the allocation of testing tasks. Additionally, the test planning phase establishes the testing timeline, milestones, and identifies potential risks to be managed during the testing process.

Test Case Design

During the test case design phase, testers create individual test cases based on the requirements and test plan. Each test case includes test objectives, preconditions, test steps, expected outcomes, and post-conditions. Testers ensure that test cases cover various scenarios, edge cases, and critical functionalities of the software application. Properly designed test cases lay the foundation for accurate and effective testing.

Test Environment Setup

The test environment setup phase involves configuring the testing environment to mimic the production environment as closely as possible. This includes setting up hardware, software, databases, networks, and any other components required for testing. A stable and reliable test environment is essential for executing tests and ensuring that they accurately represent real-world usage scenarios.

Test Execution

In the test execution phase, testers execute the prepared test cases in the test environment. They meticulously record the test results, including observed outcomes and any defects identified during testing. Testers communicate with developers to provide immediate feedback on defects and work collaboratively to resolve issues. Test execution is a crucial phase that determines the quality and functionality of the software application.

Defect Reporting and Tracking

Defect reporting and tracking involve documenting and prioritizing any issues identified during test execution. Testers use defect tracking tools to log defects and communicate their severity and impact on the application. Developers address these issues, and testers verify the defect fixes through regression testing to ensure that the fixes do not introduce new problems.

Test Closure

The test closure phase marks the conclusion of the testing process for a particular software release. Testers evaluate the testing outcomes, measure the test coverage, and assess whether testing goals and objectives were met. Test closure includes the preparation of test summary reports that provide an overview of the testing efforts, defect statistics, and an assessment of the software's quality.

Stages of Manual Testing

Unit Testing

The process of unit testing involves examining different units or components of source code. A unit is the smallest software component that can be tested. It focuses on evaluating the operation of certain application components. Early in the development cycle, it is frequently used by developers to find flaws. 

A simple unit test case might be to click a button on a website and see if it executes the requested action. For instance, you might check that a website’s share button allows you to share the right page link.

Integration Testing

Integration testing occurs after unit testing and involves testing multiple units together as a group. The main objective is to verify the seamless interaction between different units and to identify any issues that may arise when they are combined. Testers check data flow, communication between units, and interface compatibility.

In integration testing, stubs and drivers are used to simulate the behavior of units that are not yet developed or are unavailable for testing. This allows for a controlled testing environment and ensures that the integration points are functioning correctly. Integration testing helps catch integration-related defects early in the development process, reducing the risk of costly issues during system testing.

System Testing

System testing is a comprehensive test of the entire software system. It is performed to evaluate the system’s compliance with specified requirements and to validate that it functions as intended in real-world scenarios. This type of testing involves both functional and non-functional testing to ensure that all components work harmoniously together.

Testers execute a wide range of test cases, covering various user scenarios, inputs, and outputs. Functional testing ensures that all features and functionalities are working as documented, while non-functional testing assesses aspects such as performance, security, and scalability.

System testing aims to identify defects related to the interaction between different modules and any issues that may have been missed in previous testing phases. It helps ensure that the software meets the desired quality standards before deployment.

UI Testing

User Interface (UI) testing focuses on assessing the software’s graphical user interface. Testers verify that the UI elements are aesthetically pleasing, well-aligned, and function as expected. They test the responsiveness of the interface on various devices and screen sizes, ensuring a consistent user experience. UI testing plays a vital role in enhancing the software’s usability and user satisfaction.

Acceptance Testing

Acceptance testing’s primary objective is to determine if the system as a whole is suitable for usage in the real world.

Both internal and external testing is done as part of acceptance testing. Alpha testing, also known as internal acceptability testing, is carried out by the organization’s members. Only a small proportion of customers test products outside (beta testing). Teams can assess how well the product meets user expectations using this method. Additionally, it finds flaws in the final stages before a product is made available.

Accessibility testing stands out among other types of acceptance testing. Every function of a website or app must pass accessibility testing to ensure that users with limitations like vision or hearing impairment, color blindness, or any other physical conditions can easily use all of its features. They can have a disability that makes using some types of technology necessitate assistive technology.

Types of Manual Testing

Black Box Testing

Black box testing is a software testing technique in which the tester evaluates the application's external behavior and functionality without having access to its internal code, architecture, or design. Testers approach the software as a "black box," focusing solely on inputting specific test cases and verifying the corresponding outputs. The primary goal is to assess whether the software meets the specified requirements and functions as expected from an end-user perspective.

White Box Testing

White box testing, also known as Clear box testing or Structural testing, involves testing the internal code, architecture, and logic of the software. Testers have full access to the source code and use this knowledge to design test cases that validate the correctness of the code's internal workings. The objective is to achieve maximum code coverage and identify defects related to logical errors, loops, and program flow.

Grey Box Testing

Grey box testing is a hybrid approach that combines elements of both Black box and White box testing. Testers have partial knowledge of the internal workings of the software, sometimes with access to some parts of the code or system design. This method allows testers to validate specific functionalities while also considering overall system behavior.

Why manual testing is needed

Whenever a fresh application enters the market and is unstable, contains bugs, causes problems, or causes issues for consumers.

If we don’t want to run into issues like this, we should run the program through one round of testing to make it stable and bug-free before delivering it to the client. If the application is bug-free, the end user will find it easier to use.

The test engineer may test the application from the standpoint of the end-user and become more familiar with the product if they conduct manual testing. This allows them to design accurate test cases for the application and provide timely feedback on it.

Advantages of Manual Testing

Realistic User Experience

Manual testing allows testers to simulate real-world user interactions with the software, mimicking how actual users would interact with the application. Testers can input various data, navigate through different features, and perform typical user actions. By experiencing the application from an end-user perspective, manual testers can identify usability issues, navigational challenges, and other aspects that directly impact user experience. This direct feedback helps software developers make necessary improvements to deliver a more intuitive and user-friendly product.

Adaptable to Requirement Changes

In the dynamic world of software development, requirements can change frequently due to evolving user needs or business priorities. Manual testing excels in handling such changes because testers can quickly adapt their testing approach based on the modified requirements. Unlike automated tests, which may require significant rework to accommodate changes, manual testing offers the agility needed to keep up with evolving project needs and ensures that the software meets the most current requirements.

Early Defect Detection

Manual testing plays a crucial role in early defect detection, especially during the initial stages of development. Testers can begin testing as soon as the first code is available, even before automated test scripts are fully developed. This early start allows testers to identify and report defects sooner, reducing the cost and effort of fixing issues later in the development process. Early detection and resolution of defects help maintain project timelines and contribute to a more cost-effective testing strategy.

Effective Usability and UI Testing

User Interface (UI) and usability testing require human judgment and observation. Manual testing allows testers to evaluate the visual elements, layout, and overall user-friendliness of the application. Testers can provide subjective feedback on design aesthetics and user interactions, ensuring that the software delivers a visually appealing and user-centric experience. Manual testing is invaluable in identifying UI-related defects, such as inconsistent color schemes, poor layout, or non-intuitive navigation.

Cost-Effectiveness for Small Projects

For smaller projects or projects with limited resources, manual testing can be a cost-effective choice. Setting up and maintaining automated testing frameworks can be time-consuming and expensive. Manual testing allows teams to allocate resources efficiently while still achieving a satisfactory level of quality. In such cases, manual testing provides an economical testing approach without compromising on essential testing goals.

Disadvantages of Manual Testing

Time-Consuming and Resource-Intensive

Manual testing can be a time-consuming process, especially for large and complex software applications. Testers need to execute each test case manually, which can take a considerable amount of time, leading to longer testing cycles. Additionally, manual testing requires skilled and experienced testers, and employing a sufficient number of testers can be resource-intensive, resulting in higher testing costs.

Limited Test Coverage

Due to the sheer volume of test cases required to cover all possible scenarios, manual testing may not achieve complete test coverage. Testers may focus on testing critical areas or frequently used features, leaving some less critical components under-tested. As a result, certain defects or issues might go undetected, potentially affecting the overall quality of the software.

Human Errors and Subjectivity

Human testers are susceptible to errors and subjectivity, which can impact the accuracy and reliability of test results. Testers may overlook defects or misinterpret expected behaviors, leading to false positives or negatives. Furthermore, different testers evaluating the same feature may have varying interpretations, introducing inconsistencies in the testing process.

Scalability Challenges

Scaling manual testing to accommodate changes in project scope, additional features, or increased testing requirements can be challenging. As the software evolves, manual testers may face difficulties in keeping up with the growing testing demands, potentially leading to delays in testing cycles.

Dependency on Tester Expertise

The effectiveness of manual testing relies heavily on the expertise of the testing team. Testers with varying skill levels may achieve different levels of test coverage and accuracy. A lack of skilled testers can lead to suboptimal testing outcomes and potential issues going undetected.


For those who are looking to start their careers as software test engineers, this manual testing course article may be beneficial. Anyone can pursue a career in manual testing because it doesn’t require programming expertise, but it does require familiarity with the product. Software testers can choose from a wide variety of positions available worldwide. 

Therefore, it is usually recommended to receive training from an established institution. For more information about our manual test course, please visit our website. This course was created with the help of the SME team, and we’ll be working on a lot of current, industry-driven projects. For individuals that enroll in one of our courses, this will be an added benefit.